Glossary

Procurement terminology
Accounts Payable
Accounts payable refers to the money which an organization needs to pay back within a specific period of time for the goods and services that are purchased on credit. This is termed as a liability and comes under the “current liabilities”. Thus, this is similar to debt; however short term, and needs to be paid in order to escape default.
Acquisition Cost
Acquisition cost, also called as the cost of acquisition, refers to attaining the fixed asset in order to be used for the commercial and business activities. This helps us in determining the real expenses of an asset, both purchase price and other costs. Also, this could be referred as the cost incurred by the organization in acquiring a new customer.
Approved Supplier
Approved supplier refers to the vendor who is in sync with the minimum required performance criteria in relation to an effective and efficient service, delivery, quality, pricing, etc.
AP Automation
Accounts payable automation refers to the process of making the business method of their accounts payable department more efficient and effective by using simpler and better methods. The main function of the accounts payable department is to make sure that all unsettled invoices from their suppliers are permitted, processed, and paid. The process is very basic but can take a toll on the company, especially when the invoices are large in number. This is inflated when the process is carried out on a piece of paper. Thus, the goal of automating the accounts payable department is to restructure the invoicing process and make it obstacle free by eradicating probable human error, and lower the cost per invoice. Some of the most common AP automation solutions comprise E-invoicing, scanning and workflow, online tracking, reporting capabilities, electronic invoice user interfaces, supplier networks, payment services and spend analytics for all invoices.
BAFO
BAFO refers to “best and final offer” and is often a part of Request for Proposal. This is a procurement strategy that is used when one assumes that the price stated could be altered or when the proposal needs an adequate and structured framework to carry out the procurement process in an effective manner.
Bid Rigging
Bid rigging arises when supplier get in touch with each other prior to lodging their bids and arrive at a conclusion as to who will be the fruitful bidder and at what price.
Breach Of Contract
Breach of contract refers to a failure of the supplier or the buyer to perform their responsibilities and commitments as mentioned in the terms and conditions of a contract.
Business Expense Management
Business expense management refers to the system adopted by an organization in order to process, recompense, and review employee-initiated expenses. This comprises guidelines and measures which oversee spending’s of such sort, as well as leveraging technology to process and analyze the data associated with it. There are various types of expense management such as travel expense management, telecom expense management and technology expense management.
Business Travel Reimbursement
Business travel reimbursement refers to the permissible business expense that is incurred by the organization on behalf of the employee of the organization in exchange for goods or/and services. Reimbursement or payment of the permissible business expense is eventually the obligation of the organization. There are several business expenses that fall within this category such as business travel expenses, meal, moving expenses, stay expenses, etc. However it is vital to make sure that each expense has personalized policies and processes in order to get rid of the obstacles in the long run.
Buyer’s Guide
Buyer’s guide provides information to prospective customers related to significant aspects of the purchase that they wish to make. This guide usually states the terms and conditions and provides them with a basic outline of the goods or/and service.
Category Analysis
Category analysis refers to the process of having an in-depth knowledge of the demand and supply market for a particular category. This does not only help in managing category in an efficient manner but also matures the understanding of a stakeholder in a holistic manner. Category analysis comprises category overview, drilling into the category and finally deep analysis.
Category Management
Category management refers to organizing or categorizing procurement resources in reference with focusing on specific areas of spends. The intention is to conduct an in depth market analysis so that the allocation of resources could be managed in an effective manner. This could also help organizations in leveraging its obtaining power to find optimum result in the marketplace.
Change Order (CO)
A change order refers to the amendments made in a document such as a contract, purchase order or even an agreement. However, it is vital to understand that such modifications must be within the possibility of the contract, and also legally feasible.
Cloud Computing
Cloud computing refers to providing information from resources extracted from the internet via web-based tools and applications rather than having a local server. It provides shared processing resources and data to computers and other devices on demand. In simple terms, it means storing and retrieving of data over the internet.
Competitive Bidding
Competitive bidding is a process aimed at acquiring goods or/and services at the lowest price. The belief is to stimulate competition and minimize discrimination. This is a transparent procurement process which allows fair play for competing contractors, suppliers, or vendors. There are 2 types of biddings- open bidding (seals are open in full view) and closed bidding (seals are open in view of selective audience).
Compliance
Compliance refers to being in sync with the given guidelines, requirements or even specifications. Thus, judging the appropriate means to ensure compliance is vital.
Contractor
Contractor refers to an organization that accepts a contract with the intention of fulfilling requirements such as providing goods or a service.
Contract Management
Contract management refers to the process of managing contracts in terms of deliverables, deadlines, terms and conditions, etc. from vendors, customers, employees or partners. Thus, it is the activity of strategically managing contract creation, execution and analysis for maximizing profitability and minimizing risks.

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CPO
A chief procurement officer (CPO) is an executive role focused on sourcing, procurement, and supply management for an enterprise.
Data Enrichment
Data enrichment refers to the process of adding value to the existing data in order to improve the quality and productivity of the same. This is vital as it helps in making an informed decision and strategizing well.
Demand Forecasting
Demand forecasting refers to predicting the future in terms of the demand for the firm’s product. This results from knowing the customers well, identifying trends and eventually planning strategies around the same. The purpose behind this is to maximize profits and minimize risks.
Demand Management
Demand management refers to the process of supervising and following the requirements and internal purchasing operations of an organization. It is the method of estimating, scheduling and handling the demand for products or/and services. This, also, acts as an added advantage as it helps the business units collaborate with suppliers and strengthens their relationship.
Direct Procurement
Direct procurement refers to the process of attaining raw materials and goods in order to go ahead with the production. These purchases are typically made in great amounts, assimilated from multiple number of suppliers at the best possible rate, superiority and dependability.
Direct Purchase
Direct purchase refers to the process of acquiring goods or/and services directly from the supplier, and skipping the different levels of intermediaries involved.
Dynamic Discounting
Dynamic discounting is the methodology of aiding buyers with the flexibility of choosing how and when to pay their suppliers in exchange for a lower price or discount for the goods and services purchased. However, the ideal arrangement between sellers and buyers refers to an early payment in order to achieve better discounts. There are three kinds of dynamic discounting- Early Payments, Extended Discount Term and Dynamic Payment Terms or ASAP terms.
Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)
Enterprise resource planning or ERP refers to the business process management software that enables an organization to use a system comprising integrated application in order to manage the business, and automation of functions such as human resource, technology and services. Thus, ERP refers to a set of activities that helps in smooth functioning of an organization.
E-Invoicing
e-Invoicing or electronic invoicing is the process of exchanging invoice document between a supplier and a buyer via an electronic platform. This eradicates the obstacle of handling invoicing traditionally and functions associated with it-manual and disposed to human errors.
e-Procurement
eProcurement or electronic procurement denotes the process of acquiring and selling of goods or/and services using an automated process or through electronic methods. This acts as a superior alternative to the manualized process of procurement and makes it more efficient and effective. In today’s dynamic and highly competitive environment, organizations are increasingly adopting eProcurment platforms witpah the intention to control loopholes and excessive costs. eProcurement comprises e-tendering, contract management, vendor management, indent management and a lot more.
e-Purchasing
ePurchasing or electronic purchasing denotes the process of acquiring and selling of goods or/and services using an automated process or through electronic methods. This acts as a superior alternative to the manualized process of procurement and makes it more efficient and effective.
Financial Savings Management
Financial savings management refers to the process of estimating savings based on factors such as tracking savings, planning well and mapping the same. Thus, this helps organizations in controlling spends and achieving savings by having a clear picture of accounts and planning their strategies accordingly.
Financial Supply Chain Management
Financial supply chain management refers to a process that is all-inclusive in nature as compared to an individual process. It refers to attaining visibility over several procurement processes in order to achieve an efficient financial system and cut down costs throughout the supply chain. Thus, this enhances the process flow of an organization by following the flow of money and keeping an eye at the trade-offs that maximize profitability and minimizes expenditures.
Forward Procurement Plan
Forward procurement plan refers to a plan that highlights the details of the upcoming purchases of goods and services over a specific period of time.
Green Procurement
Green procurement refers to acquiring products and services that do not lead to the deterioration of environment. This is the implementation of environment friendly practices in carrying out business activities and strikes the right balance between sustainable procurement and corporate social responsibility. Green procurement helps the organization by building a brand image, satisfying customers, reducing risks and increasing stakeholder value.
Green Supply Chain Management
Green supply chain management is an extension of supply chain management. It refers to assimilating environment thinking into supply chain management, comprising product design, sourcing and selection of material, process of manufacturing the product, delivery of the same, and management of the product after its usage. Green supply chain management not only improves operations but also agility, adaptability and promotes alignment. This process is eco-friendly and becomes a part of the corporate social responsibility.
Indirect Procurement
Indirect procurement refers to acquiring goods or/and services that are required to keep the day to day business running. However, it is essential to know that indirect procurement does not add any direct value to a business’s bottom line but most certainly makes procurement function more effective and efficient. Things such as repairing, buying office supplies, etc. form a part of indirect procurement. These are the things which are mostly consumed by internal stakeholders such as employees as compared to external stakeholders like clients.
Integrated Procurement System
IPS or Integrated Procurement System refers to a software application that aims to automate the process of acquisition. This helps us comprehend the process of delivery of goods or/and service in a detailed manner which makes it extremely competent. This system comprises framework to formulate, approve, fund, and track requisitions.
Invoice Management
Invoice management refers to the process of managing internal business functions, mainly documents from various vendors and suppliers. These functions comprise validation, verification, posting, payment approval, approval workflow, etc.
Key Performance Indicator
A key performance indicator is a quantifiable measure used to determine if a project or a contract is on track and how effectively is it meeting its Objectives. KPI is used to assess the level of accomplishment at reaching organizational goals.
Late Tender
Late tender refers to a tender received post the identified date. It is vital to have a clear check on the tender and keep a note of the tender that is not received on time.
Lead Time
Lead time refers to the difference between initiating a process and completing the same.
Licensing
Licensing is the process of granting permission (from one party to another) to use material that is licensed and held by one of the parties. This material comprises software or intellectual property such as trademarks, rights, etc.
Mobile Procurement
Mobile procurement refers to the process of making procurement process efficient by using a mobile device. This process comprises applications such as mobile purchase order creation, on-demand notifications, and real-time analytics. Mobile procurement has the ability to leverage software-side servers to move data along. This helps the organizations as they are able to track business operations using a mobile device. Thus, mobile procurement not only moves from the traditional way of paper-based procurement but also provides a clear picture and gives organizations necessary insights.
Negotiation
Negotiation is the process of reaching an agreement between a buyer and a supplier in order to accomplish mutual benefit.

Onboarding Suppliers
Looking out for suppliers is a critical task faced by procurement professionals. The main goal is to meet the right supplier at the right time and place. There are several key factors that determine the selection of suppliers. Some of them are Price or affordability, location, reliability as reliable suppliers will deliver required material efficiently and most importantly stability. The right suppliers provide the most appropriate products or/and services in order to meet the business needs.
Open Tendering
Open tendering is the process aimed at acquiring goods or/and services at the lowest price. The belief is to stimulate competition and minimize discrimination. This is a transparent procurement process which allows fair play for competing contractors, suppliers, or vendors. There are 2 types of biddings- open bidding (seals are open in full view) and closed bidding (seals are open in view of selective audience). It is also known as open competitive bidding, open competition or open solicitation.
Opportunity Analysis
Opportunity analysis refers to establishing demand and competitive analysis, and studying market conditions to be able to have a clear vision and plan strategies accordingly. Opportunity analysis is a vital process for the growth of an organization and needs to be performed frequently. Thus, it is a tool to detect and evaluate the desirability of a business opportunity.
Panel Arrangement
A Panel arrangement is a tool used for the procurement of products or/and services. In this arrangement, suppliers who are able to provide identified goods and services to an organization are selected.
Patent
Patent refers to a “right” permitted by a designated government agency. This grants a sole right of making, selling or using the proposed invention for a temporary period of time.
Performance Review
Performance Review refers to the process of observing and assessing the performance of a supplier during a contractual agreement. Here, the suppliers and buyers meet at regular intervals to evaluate performance and strategize accordingly. This is also known as supplier evaluation.
Procurement Contract Management
Contract management is the process of managing contracts that are made as a part of legal documentation of forging work relationships with customers, vendors or even partners. Contract management comprises negotiating the terms and conditions in contracts. This also includes certifying compliance with the terms and conditions, as well as documenting and agreeing on any changes or by both the parties. Thus, it is process of managing, executing and analyzing the management of contract efficiently.
Procurement Optimization
Procurement optimization refers to a holistic approach rather than an individualistic one. It refers to the process of attaining optimum value creation using people, process and technology. An approach to procurement optimization could be- Initial scoping, data collection and analysis, improvement and implementation and follow up and monitoring.
Procurement Planning
Procurement planning is the process of obtaining goods or/and service by defining factors such as- what to buy, where to buy and from whom to buy. This is essential as it helps in stating realistic expectations, carrying a transparent process with the stakeholders and identifying ambiguities.
Procurement Process
Procurement is the process of acquiring goods or/and services fr om external sources. Firstly, it is essential for the external source to provide the organization with the solution to the problem before any kind of agreement can be reached. Following this, price or cost should be contemplated about. In depth, this process comprises five vital steps- defining business needs, developing procurement strategy, assessing supplier and selecting them, negotiating and award of contract, and stimulation and incorporation. Organizations believe in promoting wider choices and higher competition with procurement programs wh ere choice and quality play an important role.
Procurement Profiling
Procurement profiling refers to the process of collecting and analyzing procurement spend data in order to determine purchasing patterns and classify opportunities for improved buying.
Procurement Value
Procurement value refers to how strategic is the value brought to the organization by procurement’s services.
Procure To Pay Process
Procure to pay or purchase to pay or P2P is the process of acquiring and managing the raw materials required to manufacture a particular product or provide a service. It requires a two way data-one that is processed to the suppliers and the other that is related to the actual order and payment for the product or/and service. Thus, it is the process of purchasing goods involving the primary decision, the criteria of choosing the goods, and the transaction made for the same.
Proposal
A proposal is a document submitted by a seller in response to a bid solicitation, to be used as the foundation for dialogues in order to enter into a contract.
Purchase Description
Purchase description refers to the words mentioned in solicitation in order to describe the supplies or services to be acquired and comprises terms and conditions. In simple terms, purchase description describes purchase specifications in a detailed manner.
Purchase Order
Purchase order refers to a document exchanged between a buyer and a seller. This is used to control the purchasing of products and services from external suppliers, and serves as a legal document and bidding contract between the two parties.
Purchase Order Management
Purchase order management refers to managing different processes related to Purchase order (PO) approvals. These processes comprise creating POs, approving or rejecting POs and closing POs.
Purchase Requisition
Purchase requisition refers to the process of requesting or instructing to purchase to procure a certain goods or/and service that are available at a certain quantity and the given timeframe. Purchase requisition comprises multiple items such as standard, subcontracting, consignment, stock transfer, external service, etc.
P2P (Procure to pay or Purchase to pay)
Procure to pay or purchase to pay or P2P is the process of acquiring and managing the raw materials required to manufacture a particular product or provide a service. It requires a two way data-one that is processed to the suppliers and the other that is related to the actual order and payment for the product or/and service. Thus, it is the process of purchasing goods involving the primary decision, the criteria of choosing the goods, and the transaction made for the same.
Quotation
Quotation refers to a declaration of price, terms and conditions of sale, description of goods or/and service that is presented by a potential seller to a potential buyer.
Request For Information (RFI)
A Request for Information refers to the process of collecting information from suppliers before officially sourcing products or services from them. It is a pre-requisite used to gauge information about potential suppliers in order to filter the picks and find the suppliers that best suit your requirements.
Request For Proposal (RFP)
Request for proposal refers to formally receiving a detailed proposal from multiple suppliers for a particular product or/and service. It is a comparable document which is proposed to provide all necessary information to make a well-versed decision.
См. Запрос предложений
Request For Quotation (RFQ)
Request for quotation (RFQ) is a document used to invite suppliers and subcontractors to put forward a bid on the given products or/and service. RFQ is ideal when it comes to sourcing products that are consistent or produced repeatedly.
См. Запрос котировок
Request For Supplier Qualification (RFSQ)
Request for Supplier Qualification (RFSQ) refers to gathering supplier information based on their competences and credentials. This is done with an intention to either identify qualified suppliers from the potential list or to narrow the field for an immediate need.
Request For Tender (RFT)
Request for tender refers to the open invitation that is sent to the suppliers to respond to a defined need and not a request that is sent to potential suppliers.
This is a holistic document that does not only include information about products or/and services, but also the business.
RFx Software

RFx software refers to Request For Information (RFI), Request For Proposal (RFP), and / or Request For Quote (RFQ). All three have different functions.

1. Request For Information (RFI) refers to identifying potential suppliers and deducing if current suppliers are able to supply a new product or service.

2. Request For Proposal (RFP) are proposals issued to suppliers who have been labeled as potential suppliers for further understandings.

3. Request For Quote (RFQ) are issued to accumulate (initial) bids once a section of qualified suppliers has been determined.

RFx Tools
RFx tools are apparatuses that enable and automate the RFx software in order to carry out the RFx processes in a smooth manner. They are faster as compared to manual processes and depict a higher level of accuracy.
Risk Analysis
Risk analysis refers to the process of recognizing, evaluating and prioritizing the risks that apply to a certain procurement scenario in relation with price, quality and other aspects. The ultimate intention is to minimize risks and maximize profits.
Risk Management Plan
Risk Management Plan refers to identifying, assessing and mitigating risks associated with procurement. The plan represents a document that highlights the nature and treatment of risks throughout the procurement cycle.
Solicitation
This refers to the process used to by procurement professionals to convey requirements and to request responses from suppliers who are interested. Thus, it denotes pursuing information and proposals from suppliers.
Spend Analysis
Spend analysis refers to the process of collecting, categorizing and evaluating spend data. This is performed with the intention of maximizing profitability and minimizing risks. Spend analysis provides insights regarding spend visibility, compliance and control.
Spend Management
Spend management is the process of managing flow of money-in terms of reducing costs and acquiring savings. It forms a framework of the organization’s spend structure and enables actions based on the acquired data. Thus, it provides necessary insights in terms of acquiring a high return on investment.
Strategic Sourcing
Strategic sourcing is a continuous process of analyzing what an organization purchases, from whom, at what price and at what volume. This places emphasis on the complete life-cycle of a product and not just its upfront price. Strategic sourcing demands homogenizing sourcing and providing users with technology in order to share information about products, market trends and business requirements. The main objective of strategic sourcing refers to the lessening of cost while preserving or improving the quality of the product.
Supplier Evaluation
Supplier evaluation refers to the process of assessing the supplier’s ability in relation with financial stability, quality, value, organizational structure, performance and various other processes. This process is carried forward taking into consideration both existing and potential suppliers and accepted or excluded accordingly. This also acts as an instrument to help and improve the performance of existing suppliers.
Supplier Network Management
Supply network management refers to the process of managing the movement of material and information. This is executed by connecting organizations together in order to serve the end-consumer effectively and efficiently. The purpose behind supply network management is to lead a smooth process and not face any kinds of obstacles.
Supplier Performance Management
Supplier performance management refers to the process of tracking supplier’s performance by measuring, analyzing and managing their key efforts in functioning of an organization. The main reason behind keeping a check on the supplier’s performance is not only to bring down costs, but also to eradicate risks and improve continuously. Thus, through the assessment and judgment of supplier performance, organizations are equipped enough to maintain the finest service and eradicate those suppliers who fail to comply with the company policies.
Supplier Portal
A supplier portal is an internet-based system used to manage and connect with third party suppliers of goods or/and services. It is a secured management system adopted by organizations that network with multiple suppliers. This portal permits initial registration of vendors as well as account management.
Supplier Rationalization
Supplier rationalization refers to orderly assembling supplier base with the intention to gauge the optimum number of suppliers in order to run the business in an effective and efficient manner. There could either be an increase or decrease in the number of suppliers depending on several factors such as the dynamic marketing conditions, existing relationship with suppliers, etc.
Supplier Relationship Management
Supplier relationship management refers to managing an organization’s interaction with third-party organizations with the purpose of maximizing profitability and streamlining business processes. The main idea behind SRM is to create more closer and cooperative relationships in order to reach the optimum value and eradicate risks. Thus, building and maintaining a good and positive relationship with the suppliers is not only important for smooth flow of work but also affects the performance of the organization.
Supplier Sourcing
Looking out for suppliers is a critical task faced by procurement professionals. The main goal is to meet the right supplier at the right time and place. There are several key factors that determine the selection of suppliers. Some of them are Price or affordability, location, reliability as reliable suppliers will deliver required material efficiently and most importantly stability. The right suppliers provide the most appropriate products or/and services in order to meet the business needs.
Supplier’s Market
Supplier’s market refers to a situation when suppliers are less in number as compared to the demand. This gives them the opportunity to drive a hard price bargain.
Supply Base Management

Supply base management is the process of managing the complete supply base which comprises current suppliers, minor suppliers and potential suppliers. Some of the best practices of SBM include enhancing the supplier selection and relationship management, streamlining the number of suppliers, and conducting detailed audits and operational reviews to assess suppliers. Thus, SBM helps procurement organizations in managing supplier’s risk, performance and information.

Supply Chain Optimization
Supply chain optimization is the process of achieving best desired results for manufacturing and distribution of supply chain by putting forward minimum input and accomplishing maximum output.
Supply Chain Sustainability
Supply chain sustainability refers to the process of moving ahead of the sole purpose of delivery, inventory and traditional views of cost. Here, the focus shifts to social responsibility products keeping in mind not only the fact that it is environment friendly but also that it is important for long-term profitability. Thus, the idea is to incorporate environment with supply chain management and create supply chain sustainability.
Supply Chain Visibility (SCV)
As its name suggests, supply chain visibility is the process of tracking or having the ability to keep a check on the component or products in transit from the manufacturer to their ultimate destination. The main aim of supply chain visibility is to develop and strengthen the supply chain by making the adequate data accessible to all stakeholders, both internal and external. Thus, supply chain visibility helps in providing a precise representation of demand and supply levels.
Supply Management
Supply management is a minor version of supplier management. Supply management refers to the process of classifying, obtaining and handling the products or/and services required to run a business or an organization. These are the processes dealing with corporate buying such as buying goods or/and services and managing the same. Controlling costs, allocating resources in an effective manner, and collecting information in order to make the business grow are the main objectives of supply management.
Supply Positioning Model
Supply positioning model refers to segmenting the spend portfolio by risk and opportunity. With the help of this model, organizations rank their supplies based on the money spent with the supplier and the level of susceptibility a business has if that supplier fails. This model helps in prioritizing the efforts and developing supply strategy of company.
Sustainable Procurement
Sustainable procurement refers to acquiring products and services that do not lead to the deterioration of environment. This is the implementation of environment friendly practices in carrying out business activities and strikes the right balance between sustainable procurement and corporate social responsibility. This helps the organization by building a brand image, satisfying customers, reducing risks and increasing stakeholder value.
S2P (Source-to-pay)
Source-to-pay is a software vital for smooth functioning of purchasing departments. This particular software enables multiple activities such as auctions, spend analysis, purchasing categories management, purchase requisitions, sourcing events, billing and vendor relations within the same solution.
Tender Evaluation Panel
Tender evaluation panel refers to a group of people who assess tenders and give recommendations on the award of contract.
Transparency With Suppliers
Transparency with suppliers refers to a situation where suppliers are kept in loop at every procurement stage and a nondiscriminatory process is carried out. This results in various positives for the organization such as better record management, bulk purchasing, cost reduction and advanced strategic planning.
UNSPSC
UNSPSC refers to the” United Nations Standard Products and Services Code”. This is a coding system , a four-level hierarchy coded as an eight-digit number, that aids suppliers and buyers to have a common label for goods or/and services without having to refer it as suppliers codes and portrayals.
Unsuccessful Vendor
An unsuccessful vendor is the one who is not accepted by the buyer. This could be due to numerous reasons such as price, quality, failure to live up to the requirements, etc.
Vendor Portal
A vendor portal is an internet-based system used to manage and connect with third party suppliers of goods or/and services. It is a secured management system adopted by organizations that network with multiple suppliers. This portal permits initial registration of suppliers as well as account management.
Vendor Sourcing
Looking out for suppliers is a critical task faced by procurement professionals. The main goal is to meet the right supplier at the right time and place. There are several key factors that determine the selection of suppliers. Some of them are Price or affordability, location, reliability as reliable suppliers will deliver required material efficiently and most importantly stability. The right suppliers provide the most appropriate products or/and services in order to meet the business needs.
Written Quotation
Written quotation is a document used to invite suppliers and subcontractors to put forward a bid on the given products or/and service. It is ideal when it comes to sourcing products that are consistent or produced repeatedly. This is also referred to as “Request for Quotation”.
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